Late in the 11th century, King Malcolm III built a castle on Castle Rock and a small town grew up nearby.  Merchants were allocated strips of land known as "tofts", ranged along both sides of a long market street, on condition that they built a house on their land within a year and a day. The architect presented a plan of large parallel streets, squares and gardens. The historian Marjorie Anderson holds that this was the key event in assuring Scottish rule over Lothian.  Edinburgh's city centre between Princes Street and George Street became a predominantly commercial and shopping district, sweeping away most of the original Georgian architecture of that part of the New Town. Observing conditions there in the 1770s, a widely travelled English visitor already reported that, "No people in the World undergo greater hardships, or live in a worse degree of wretchedness and poverty, than the lower classes here. Edinburgh was Scotland's largest city until Glasgow outgrew it in the first two decades of the 19th century. However Edinburgh was one of the most densely populated, overcrowded and unsanitary towns in the whole of Europe. He describes a Catholic culture surrounded by Protestant animosity and excluded from power. , In AD 973 during a royal council at Chester, the English king Edgar the Peaceful formally granted Lothian to Kenneth II, King of Scots. , From the late-1760s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more desirable "one-family" residences of the New Town, with separate attic or basement accommodation for domestic servants. By this period, Edinburgh no longer needed to be circled by its defensive wall since Scotland was united with England in 1707, having been presided over by the same monarch for over a century - however the long years of antagonism and separate history explain the existence of separate institutions such as the Bank of Scotland and the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood (as well as the current Scottish independence movement).  The development of Edinburgh Park, a new business and technology park covering 38 acres, 4 miles west of the city centre, has also been a key element in the District Council's strategy for the city's economic regeneration..  It is possible that this church was a forerunner of what was later to become St Giles' Cathedral or St Cuthbert's Church. , From around 1820 the city acquired its soubriquets "Modern Athens" and "Athens of the North" because of a perceived similarity in topography, the neo-classical architecture of its new public buildings and New Town, and not least its reputation as an intellectual centre..  During the tenth century its northernmost part, which had retained its Brythonic name Lothian, came under the sway of the Kingdom of Scotland. Defences were rebuilt and enhanced in response to the Jacobite Risings of 1689–1746. The Old Town, built up in the Middle Ages when the fear of attack was constant, huddles high on the Castle Rock overlooking the surrounding plain. The fort and the region were not re-captured by the Scots until 1018. Although the Scots opposed … Wood, John, ca. A striking characteristic of Edinburgh society in the 18th century, often remarked upon by visitors, was the close proximity and social interaction of the various social classes. To celebrate the year of History, Heritage and Archaeology, this unique visitor experience will bring Edinburgh…  The Scottish king James II (1430–60) was "born, crowned, married and buried in the Abbey of Holyrood", and James III (1451–88) described Edinburgh in one of his charters as "the principal burgh of our kingdom" (principalior burgus regni nostri). In exploring the Museum’s maze of 16th century buildings, you will see iconic items, beautiful objects and learn fascinating facts and gruesome tales. Even so, its population dropped by over two-thirds (to 3,000) between 1950 and 1975; and of 292 houses in the Cowgate in 1920 only eight remained in 1980. Among them Douglas Fairbanks Junior, Googie Withers and Canadian actress Yvonne De Carlo. 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