south african secret police during apartheid

The SAP relinquished its responsibility for South West Africa in 1981. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Sup", "An abridged version of the security report by Justice H.J. The public schools that replaced the mission schools were funded via a tax paid by black South Africans; the monies raised were inadequate to maintain the schools properly. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. [1], During the middle of 1968, the South African cabinet approved the implementation of a centralised security service and on 28 August of the same year, General Hendrik van den Bergh was instructed to start planning the new organisation. [1] The Bureau for State Security was then renamed the Department of National Security (DONS) on 1 September 1978. [2]:Chp2 As the BOSS head Hendrik van den Bergh was a close ally of the Prime Minister, it was seen by Military Intelligence as a foregone conclusion that BOSS would achieve favour. Today there is only one Police College to train new recruits in Pretoria. The Bureau's job was to monitor national security. Apartheid–South Africa–History. [2]:105[3]:114 The first Commissioner of Police was Colonel Theo G Truter with 5,882 men under his command. The Koevoet, translating into English as 'crowbar', but officially known as the Police Counter-Insurgency Unit (COIN) or 'Operation K' were a major paramilitary police unit in South African-administered South West Africa, now the Republic of Namibia. [2]:Chp4, The new Prime Minister P.W. Protesters flee as police charge during riots in Cape Town in 1976. One, the amendment of Officials Secrets Act to include BOSS and secondly, preventing the Prime Minister, Van den Bergh or cabinet ministers from giving evidence or producing documents in court that might prejudice State Security. The Vlakplaas farm became the site of multiple executions of political opponents of the apartheid government. Police reports from the time of the massacre claimed that panicking officers spontaneously fired into an increasingly violent crowd; however, other sources claim that the demonstration was peaceful in the moment leading up to the shooting. The South African political landscape was dominated in the 1970s by the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and anti-apartheid student political activity. Botha was looking for an alternative to the policing function of BOSS as well as an alternative to a military view of intelligence, one which would provide long-term strategic intelligence to the government about the southern African region and world. [10], On 21 March 1960, SAP officers in the Transvaal township of Sharpeville opened fire on a large anti-apartheid protest outside of the local police station, killing 69 demonstrators and injuring 180 others. Source: warwick.ac.uk . I was assaulted by police, they almost killed me. James Sanders has gathered classified documents and interviewed ex-operatives since 1997 and has pieced together an extraordinary, unsavoury picture of the Intelligence Service, both inside South Africa … Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases … It functioned as a paramilitary hit squad,[12] capturing political opponents of the National Party government and either "turning" or executing them. And state violence to maintain order and enforce labor demands has not disappeared. The South African Secret Service (SASS) was the previous name of a South African intelligence agency.Currently, it is known as the Foreign Branch of the State Security Agency.It is responsible for all non-military foreign intelligence and for counterintelligence within the Service itself. [3]:437 Military Intelligence's (MI) budget was reduced from R830,000 the previous year to a R39,000 a which would lead to continuous struggle for power between MI and BOSS throughout the seventies. DT1757.C52 2011 968.05 2010050190 ALEXANDRA, South Africa — During apartheid, the government wielded the police like a club, using them to keep black South Africans in check and brutally extinguish any dissent. What followed from apartheid dispossession and disenfranchisement was a series of laws displacing people or making their location in one or more place insecure or vulnerable. In March 1960 police fired upon a crowd protesting peacefully against the pass laws in Sharpeville, killing at … We discussed in this class what might inspire a Jew to help a black South African noting, at the time only 2% of the white population in South Africa was Jewish but 60% of the white anti-apartheid activists in South Africa were Jewish (Feld 2010). Many South African police officers might be considered “accidental officers”. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. Union of South Africa, Apartheid, Escape from the Secret Police by D'LynnWaldron, PhD, FRGS ©1960-2011 I was in the Union of South Africa in 1960 as a roving correspondent for Scripps-Howard newspapers when I came to be a fugitive from the Boer Afrikaner police at the time of the Sharpsville massacre, and following the Coalbrook coal mining disaster on January 1, 1960 in which there were … [3]:436 Attached to the Prime Minister office, he would be in command of all security and intelligence chiefs in the country including the military, and reported only to Vorster. He increased the recruitment of black police personnel, formed a civilian riot-control unit that was separate from the SAP but worked with it, developed a code of police conduct agreed upon by a number of political parties and communities, and substantially increased police training facilities. Thereafter, in 1963, the Republican intelligence was born from where BOSS was created on May 1st 1969. After the war, the South African Police joined INTERPOL on 1 January 1948.[4][5]. From 1948 through the 1990s, a single word dominated life in South Africa. Black citizens were displaced and saw some of their villages destroyed forcing them … Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … [3]:437 It outlined the control of the Bureau for State Security would rest with Prime Minister and that the civil service Public Service Commission would have no control over it powers, functions and duties. A black girl born to white parents during Apartheid South Africa was a national sensation. The climate of escalating violence in the early 1990s often posed even greater challenges to the police than they had faced in the 1980s, as violence shifted from anti-government activity to a mosaic of political rivalries and factional clashes. In 1969, Malawi was the only country at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto condemning South Africa' apartheid policy. Beyond the conventional police functions of upholding order and solving crime, the SAP employed counter-insurgency and intimidation tactics against anti-apartheid activists and critics of the white minority government. I argue that what has changed most since the end of apartheid is the relationship between policing and political order. [9], During South Africa's rule under apartheid, the SAP operated to quell civil unrest amongst the country's disenfranchised non-white majority. [2]:Chp4 He viewed Foreign Affairs as too overt and tainted by the Information Scandal and therefore saw a need to organise BOSS into a new agency based around research and analysis and removed its old covert operational function and transferred that to the Security Branch of the police. 70) of 1965 empowered the police to search without warrant any person, receptacle, vehicle, aircraft, or premise within one mile of any national border and to seize anything found during such a search. In 2012, Ramaphosa, a wealthy businessman before becoming president, encouraged police to end a wildcat strike at the Marikana Mine. The South African Police were the successors to the police forces of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal Colony in law enforcement in South Africa. Title. When the conservative National Party edged out liberal opponents in South Africa's elections in 1948, the new government enacted legislation strengthening the relationship between the police and the military. In 1992 Kriel began restructuring the SAP into a three-tiered force consisting of a national police, primarily responsible for internal security and for serious crime; autonomous regional forces, responsible for crime prevention and for matters of general law and order; and municipal police, responsible for local law enforcement and for minor criminal matters. [1], The organisational structure of BOSS is said to have been composed of the following departments:[2]:Chp2, In the wake of the Information scandal (known as Muldergate) in which the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) had become mired, the head of the BOSS, Hendrik van den Berg, resigned in June 1978 and was replaced by Alec van Wyk. Proclamation 18 formed the South African Police on 1 April 1913 with the amalgamation of the police forces of the four old colonies after the founding of the Union of South Africa in 1910. [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. After South Africa's transition to majority rule in 1994, the SAP was reorganised into the South African Police Service (SAPS). 1. Thereafter they formed part of the new South African honours system. They were formed either to carry out a specific task or to deal with a particular area of crime. p. cm. [6]:162 The now newly named National Intelligence Service was announced on the 6 February 1980. There is a specific scene where the white head of Secret Police made that statement and had emptied the prison of known black career criminals and paid them gold (krugger rands- the cops had stolen from the mint in South Africa) to attack each other and stroke tribal warfare. For example, most black police personnel had trained at Hammanskraal, near Pretoria; most whites, in Pretoria; most coloureds, Bishop Lavis, near Cape Town; and Asians at Chatsworth, near Durban. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. During the time of the S.A. border war all Policemen were required to complete a 6-week intensive counter insurgence (C.O.I.N.) This was discontinued in 1933, because South Africa had become independent as a member of the new British Commonwealth, and it was replaced in 1937 by a special South African issue of the medal. In 1973, a ground-breaking film, Joe Bullet, was screened - for the very first time - at the Eyethu Cinema in Soweto. From 1923, the SAP also had its own long service medal, which doubled as a medal for gallantry. [2]:Chp4 Believing that the outcome of both inquiries were already predetermined, BOSS officials began to shred any document that could be used against them. In 1970, Malawian president Hastings Banda made his … The first racially integrated intake of recruits began slowly in 1993 and integration was complete by 1995. [3]:114, In 1939, the SAP took over the South West African Police and became responsible for policing South West Africa, which was under South African administration at that time. [3]:436, By March 1969, the skeleton of a new security service began to emerge with the release of the expenditures for 1969-70 when R5,320,500 was allocated to the secret services, a 188 percent increase over the previous year with R4,063,000 allocated to the Prime Minister's office and Van den Bergh. The police increased the use of part-time, specialised personnel – such as the special constables (called kitskonstabels (instant constables) in Afrikaans) – to help quell the growing violence in the 1980s. Even with training courses extended to three months, their often brutal and inept performance contributed to the growing hostility between the police and the public by the late 1980s. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Public amenities could not be shared among different races. Botha appointed Niel Barnard in November 1979 to form a new intelligence service. 808 on 16 May 1969 announced the Bureau for State Security's formation and came into being retrospectively on the 1 May as a department under the Prime Minister. A former South African police officer will face trial over the 1971 killing of an anti-apartheid activist after a court ruling that could lead to the prosecution of similar crimes. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. [2]:Chp2[4] The Commission to Inquire into Certain Intelligence Aspects of State Security, known better as the Potgieter Commission would investigate the clashes between the two organisations over who had primary responsibility for intelligence gathering in South Africa. 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